From very early history to modern times, walls have been a near necessity for every city. In 1437, it fell under the control of the Shirvanshahs of Azerbaijan. External links. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. 1927), “Only the history of free peoples is worth our attention; the history of men under a despotism is merely a collection of anecdotes.”—Sébastien-Roch Nicolas De Chamfort (1741–1794). The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. The main attraction of the village is Derbent fortress. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. In 1722, during the Russo-Persian War, Peter the Great of Russia wrested the town from the Persians, but in 1736, the supremacy of Nadir Shah was again recognized. 227-43. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Please help us create teaching materials on Mesopotamia (including several complete lessons with worksheets, activities, answers, essay questions, and more), which will be free to download for teachers all over the world. They killed 1 person and injured 12. Image of history, building, naryn - 85035005 Idem, “Rannesrednevekovaya gornaya stena v Dagestane” (The early medieval mountain wall in Dāḡestān), Sovetskaya arkheologiya, 1966/1, pp. Following the construction of Derbent's fortified walls by Shah Yazdegerd II (r. 438-457 CE), Derbent withstood numerous attacks over the next 300 years by the White Huns, Khazars, and other nomadic tribes that threatened the Persian heartlands. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. Image of brick, historical, city - 63563734 Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. Photo about Wall in Naryn-Kala fortress. The exact date of foundation of the city is not known for certain, but historians assume that its age is not less than 5 thousand years. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. The 20-meter (66 ft) high walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/image/9289/. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт dyeer-BEHNT) claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation, with a history stretching back more than 3,000 years. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. 121-46. Occupied by the Arabs, Persians and later the Imperial Russian empire, the city is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Derbent has an important strategic location in the Caucasus: the city is situated on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains. Last modified October 01, 2018. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. Original image by Шамиль Магомедов. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. Web. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is … Until the 4th century CE, it was part of Caucasian Albania and is traditionally identified with Albana, the capital. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. Mesopotamia. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. Магомедов, Шамиль. Derbent. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. The memorial area is on one side of a platz in the old city center. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. Narin Gala/Naryn Kala's Pahlavi Inscription. Derbent has an important strategic location in the Caucasus: the city is situated on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains.Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the … The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom of their own, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century. The wall still exists today and there are many different sources that claim the possible location of the Yajooj Majooj wall. The Ottoman Empire gained control of the city following the Battle of the Torches in 1583, and Ottoman ownership was secured with the Treaty of Istanbul of 1590. Construction of the current citadel, fortified walls, and city walls began c. 570 CE at the request of Shah Khosrow I (531-579 CE) who is widely … The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who transformed it in an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. Photo about City south Bayat-Kapi gate. The chronicler Movses Kagankatvatsi wrote about "the wondrous walls, for whose construction the Persian kings exhausted our country, recruiting architects and collecting building materials with a view of constructing a great edifice stretching between the Caucasus Mountains and the Great Eastern Sea." Russia. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. 02 Dec 2020. The oldest mosque is the Juma Mosque, built over a 6th-century Christian basilica; it has a 15th-century madrassa. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. DERBENT, Russia — Not so many years ago, Derbent buzzed with plans to celebrate its 5,000th anniversary, envisioning the day when it would claim the title of “Russia’s oldest city.” "Walls at Derbent." Surprisingly, the Derbent wall - the double wall of the Sassanid times - having survived dozens of wars, was partially preserved. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. Sasanian developing of irrigation systems in Mesopotamia further acted as water defense lines, notably the criss-crossing trunk canals in Khuzestan and the northern extension of the Nahrawan Canal, known as the Cut of Khusrau, which made Ctesiphon impregnable in late Sasanian period. The Derbent Fortifications is one the most popular tourist attractions in the city of Derbent and the Republic of Dagestan. The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "closed gates", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century CE, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia. History. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 01 Oct 2018. Age of Darband: c. 5,000 Years Old. The earliest known town wall in Europe is of Solnitsata, built in the 6th or 5th millennium BC. UNESCO declared Derbent's citadel, ancient city, and defensive walls to be a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003 CE. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Walls at Derbent. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. The first intensive dounset in the Derbent aurie dates frae the 8t century BC; the steid wis intermittently controlled bi the Persie monarchs, stairtin frae the 6t century BC. Yajooj Majooj will break the wall and come again Gog and Magog people dig every day until when they can almost see the rays of the sun, the one in charge of them says: “Go back and we will dig it tomorrow.” In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. I liked the listing of names along a wall. 564. History Museums in Derbent; Specialty Museums in Derbent; Nature & Parks in Derbent. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent… Darband / Derbent x. Darband/Derbent - Background. Beaches in Derbent ... Derbent: Address, Park of Military Glory Reviews: 4.5/5. Derbent. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. Republic of Dagestan, Russia. Strategic Importance & Position. Ancient History Encyclopedia. In Russia, Derbent claims this title in the extreme south of the European part near the border with Azerbaijan. Thank you! Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Till the 4t century CE it wis pairt o Caucasie Albanie, an is tradeetionally identifee'd wi Albana, the caipital. Eight Century BCE Fortifications & Early History. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Museums in Derbent. Darband's Sasanid Fortress Narin Gala/Naryn Kala. Some historians attribute its founding date to 483 AD, and others to the VI century BC, when the ancient Greek geographer Hecatei called it the “Caspian Gate”. Archaeological research shows that in such an important strategic place regular settlements existed 6, 000 years ago. With a history going back by five thousand years, Derbent is said to be Russia’s oldest city. Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. Dagestan. Narrow Pass. Idem, Derbent, Moscow, 1958. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. The Gates of Alexander was a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus to keep the uncivilized barbarians of the north from invading the land to the south. Other shrines include the 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque. A shaort 3D tour of the Derband Wall in Dagestan Russia and the similar factor between the Wall of China and Derband Wall in Dagestan Russia English Channel Link ( … In the 10th century, with the collapse of the Arab Caliphate, Derbent became the capital of an emirate. Our mission is to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. https://www.ancient.eu/image/9289/. Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. (2018, October 01). A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers have been preserved in reasonable shape till our days. Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. This image was first published on Flickr. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial reasons, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. By the 1735 Ganja treaty, Derbent fell within the Persian state. Amazing history and setting This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. It is also the southernmost city in Russia, and the second-most important city of Dagestan. It is located in Dagestan, on the shores of the Caspian Sea. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku.It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku).The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. The gates were a popular subject in medieval travel literature, starting with the Alexander Romance in a version from perhaps the 7th century. During the 16th century, Derbent was the arena for wars between Turkey and Persia ruled by the Iranian Safavid dynasty. Local authorities claim they’d warned Russia’s Culture Ministry about the condition of the Orta-Kapi gate in Derbent, the country’s second-oldest city. The first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BCE; the site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BCE. Europe ... but nice. Магомедов, Ш. Read more. Uploaded by Ibolya Horvath, published on 01 October 2018 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to occasionally manipulate Derbent politics. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. Zoroastrianism in Derbent & Dagestan. Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. Магомедов, Шамиль. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid spent time living in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Similar Sasanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Idem, “Steny i bashni Derbentskoĭ kreposti” (Walls and towers of the Darband fortress), Arkhitekturnoe nasledstvo 17, 1964, pp. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. "Walls at Derbent." Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. The rivers Euphrates, Great Zab, and Little Zab acted as natural defenses for Mesopotamia. “... that there is no other way,That the history of creation proceeds according toStringent laws, and that thingsDo get done in this way, but never the thingsWe set out to accomplish and wanted so desperatelyTo see come into being.”—John Ashbery (b. Derbent prospered for over 1,500 years under Persian, Arab, Turkish, Azeri, Mongol, Timurid, and Russian rule due to its position on the Silk Road and geostrategic importance as the gateway to the Caucasus. Derbent - district center in Dagestan, 121 km South-East of Makhachkala.. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. Uruk in ancient Sumer (Mesopotamia) is one of the world's oldest known walled cities.Before that, the proto-city of Jericho in the West Bank had a wall surrounding it as early as the 8th millennium BC. As a consequence of the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813—between Russian and Persia—Derbent became part of the Russian Empire. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the khanate of the same name. 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Darband/Derbent - Background history!